Introduction of Nanotechnology
The idea of nanotechnology was born in 1959 when physicist Richard Feynman gave a lecture exploring the idea of building things at the atomic and molecular scale. He imagined the entire Encyclopaedia Britannica written on the head of a pin.Nanotechnology is defined as the study and use of structures between 1 nanometer and 100 nanometers in size. Nanotechnology is engineering at the molecular (groups of atoms) level It is the collective term for a range of technologies, techniques and processes that involve the manipulation of matter at the smallest scale (from 1 to 100 nm 2) W ith15,342 atoms, this parallel-shaft speed reducer gear is one of ith W 15,342 atoms, this parallel-shaft speed reducer gear is one of the largest nanomechanical devices ever modeled the largest nanomechanical devices ever modeled.
Types of Nanomaterials
- • Carbon black, carbon nanotubes, graphene, fullerene nanofibers fullerene, nanofibers
- • Silica fumes
- • Clay
- • Metal/alloys
- • Ceramics Used in tires /rubber products etc..
Synthetic Strategies of Nanotechnology
Role of Bottom-up and Top-Down approaches in Nano technology:
Fig: Schematic representation of the building up of Nanostructures.
There are two approaches for synthesis of nano materials and the fabrication of nano structures
- Top down approach refers to slicing or successive cutting of a bulk material to get nano sized particle.
- Bottom up approach refers to the build up of a material from the bottom: atom by atom, molecule by molecule or cluster by cluster.
Both approaches play very important role in modern industry and most likely in nano technology as well. There are advantages and disadvantages in both approaches.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Top down & Bottom Up
•Dominant in micro fabrication, well-developed techniques
•Limited for nano fabrication, tolls available are big
•Limitation comes from wavelength of light or tool
•Able to build smaller structures than top-down
•Large scale parallel fabrication
• Require compatible surfaces, molecules
•Fewer tools to manipulate molecules and atoms
Applications of Nanotechnology
- Green nanotechnology
- Energy applications of nanotechnology
- Industrial applications of nanotechnology
- Potential applications of carbon nanotubes
Examples of Next Generation Applications of Nanotechnolgy
Advanced Computing – Nanoelectronic devices based on quantum dots
Electronics – Carbon Nanotube Conductors or Semiconductors
Cancer Treatment – Nanoparticles for targeting breast cancer cells
Energy Storage – Cathodes fabricated from nanomaterials
Engineered Textiles – Nanofibers
Environment – Nanomaterial-based photocatalyst
Metalworking – Nanoengineered copper, nanophase titanium alloys
Packaging – Nanocomposite plastics
Pharmaceuticals – Antimicrobial nanocoatings on wound dressings
…And the list goes on.
Why Needs of Nanotechnology ?
- Allows the placement of small structures placed with precision,simplicity and low cost.
- Leads to economic growth.
- Enhances national security Improves the quality of life.
- Leads to job creation.