Hydroelectric Power Plant



1.Introduction of Hydroelectric Power Plant

2.Schematic diagram of Hydroelectric Power Plant

3.What is stator, rotor, generator shaft, turbine, wicket gates, turbine blades?

4.Working of Hydroelectric Power Plant &Hydroelectric generator

5.What are the Advantages of Hydroelectric Power Plant?

6.What are the Disadvantages of Hydroelectric Power Plant?

7.What are the Applications or uses of Hydro Power Plant?

Introduction of Hydroelectric Power Plant

It is a form of energy it provides about 96 percent of the renewable energy in the United States. Other renewable resources include geothermal, wave power, tidal power, wind power, and solar power. Hydroelectric power plants do not use up resources to create electricity nor do they pollute the air, land, or water, as other power plants. Hydroelectric power has played an important part in the development of this Nation’s electric power industry. Hydroelectric power comes from flowing water winter and spring runoff from mountain streams and clear lakes. Water, when it is falling by the force of gravity, can be used to turn turbines and generators that produce electricity.

Hydroelectric plants do not create air pollution, the fuel falling water is not consumed, projects have long lives relative to other forms of energy generation, and hydroelectric generators respond quickly to changing system conditions. These favorable characteristics continue to make hydroelectric projects attractive sources of electric power. Hydro power is an essential contributor in the national power grid because of its ability to respond quickly to rapidly varying loads or system disturbances, which base load plants with steam systems powered by combustion or nuclear processes cannot accommodate.

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Schematic diagram of Hydroelectric Power Plant 



Stator: The stator is the stationary part of a rotary system, found in electric generators, electric motors, sirens, or biological rotors. The main use of a stator is to keep the field aligned.

RotorThe rotor is a moving component of an electromagnetic system in the electric motor, electric generator, or alternator. Its rotation is due to the interaction between the windings and magnetic fields which produces a torque around the rotor’s axis.

Generator Shaft: Shaft generator is a clean source of power, which means it does not burn any fuel to generate power, and for the same reason it is also called the green source of power.

Turbine: Turbines convert the energy of running water, steam or wind into mechanical energy to drive a generator. The generator then converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy,In hydroelectric facilities, this combination is called a generating unit.

Wicket gate: A wicket gate is a component of water turbines which controls the flow of water that enters the turbine.When the wicket gates are opened wider, more and more water will flow into the turbine runner which results in higher power output.

Turbine Blades: A turbine blade is the individual component which makes up the turbine section of a gas turbine orsteam turbine. The blades are responsible for extracting energy from the high temperature, high pressure gas produced by the combu

Working of Hydroelectric Power Plant


Dam stores lots of water behind it in the reservoir. Near the bottom of the dam wall there is the water intake. Gravity causes it to fall through the penstock inside the dam. At the end of the penstock there is a turbine propeller, which is turned by the moving water. The shaft from the turbine goes up into the generator, which produces the power. Power lines are connected to the generator that carry electricity to your home and mine. The water continues past the propeller through the tailrace into the river past the dam. By the way, it is not a good idea to be playing in the water right below a dam when water is released.


Working of generator

A  turbine converts the energy of flowing water into mechanical energy. A hydroelectric generator converts this mechanical energy into electricity. The operation of a generator is based on the principles discovered by Faraday. He found that when a magnet is moved past a conductor, it causes electricity to flow. In a large generator, electromagnets are made by circulating direct current through loops of wire wound around stacks of magnetic steel laminations. These are called field poles, and are mounted on the perimeter of the rotor. The rotor is attached to the turbine shaft, and rotates at a fixed speed. When the rotor turns, it causes the field poles  to move past the conductors mounted in the stator. This,causes electricity to flow and a voltage to develop at the generator output terminals.

Advantages of Hydroelectric Power Plants

  1. Hydro power is a fueled by water, so it’s a  clean fuel source.
  2. Hydro power doesn’t  pollute the air like power plants that burn fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas.
  3. Hydro power relies on the water cycle, which is driven by the sun, thus it’s a  renewable power source.
  4. Hydro power is generally available as  needed; engineers can control the flow of  water through the turbines to produce electricity on demand.

Disadvantages of Hydroelectric Power Plants

  1. Hydro power can impact water quality and flow.
  2. Hydro power plants can cause low  dissolved oxygen levels in the water, a problem that is harmful to riparian (riverbank) habitats and is addressed using various aeration techniques, which  oxygenate the water. Maintaining minimum flows of water downstream of a  hydro power installation is also critical for the survival of riparian habitats.
  3. Hydro power plants can be impacted by drought.
  4. When water is not available, the  hydro power plants can’t produce electricity.


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